Courtesy of Andrew Bustard The Notre Dame Hypersonic Aerodynamics Lab unveiled a quiet Mach 6 hypersonic tunnel in 2018. Since then, the department has continued to pursue innovation in flight technology.Thomas Juliano, assistant professor of aerospace and mechanical engineering, established the lab and began the project in August 2014. Juliano said his motivation behind the project is the possibility of hypersonic flight in the future. “The story of transportation for the last 2,000 years has been finding ways to go faster and faster,” Juliano said. “This is merely the latest step in that.”Juliano previously worked with a smaller-scale quiet wind tunnel as a graduate student at Purdue University before coming to Notre Dame. “We can do a lot with that, but we want to be able to test longer models in order to see more of what’s going on,” Juliano said. “The logical next step for facility development in order to unlock these other investigations in fluid mechanics was to build a larger-scale item.”Challenges for hypersonic flight include extremely high temperatures that surround aircraft when going thousands of miles per hour, said first-year doctoral student Andrew Bustard. “The high-heating rates, if not designed around, will destroy your vehicle,” Bustard said. “Obviously, we don’t want that. But the flow physics is so complex that we don’t actually understand fully what’s causing the heating or the best way to reduce it, so the whole point of this group is to study the flow around objects around potential or get a better understanding of the flow around high-speed objects.”The Mach 6 quiet wind tunnel is unique as it better replicates the silent noise that occurs in the atmosphere, Bustard said. “Most facilities we have on the ground have way more noise than in the atmosphere,” Bustard said. “If we truly want to model the heating in the atmosphere, we need to have flow in our wind tunnel that represents those atmospheric conditions. [The quiet tunnel] better matches the atmosphere, and that’s why it’s very useful for us.”The Mach 6 tunnel project has provided opportunities for multiple engineering students to get involved in hypersonic research. Erik Hoberg, a third-year doctoral student, specializes in flow characterization and wind tunnel design. He has been involved in the project for a little over a year. ”I was not part of [Juliano’s] group when I came to Notre Dame,” Hoberg said. “Then I met him and saw what his group was doing and really wanted to be on that project.”Fifth-year doctoral candidate Carson Running has helped with the quiet tunnel since his first year of graduate school. He worked heavily on the design and building of the tunnel in the early years of the project. “One question that I researched was the best way to heat the large surface area [of the wind tunnel],” Running said. “We actually found a company down in Texas that sells these big long heating blankets that can just be wrapped around the steel portions of the wind tunnel and set to a certain temperature that we desire.”Running spoke to the challenges of designing a state-of-the-art quiet tunnel that can advance the progress of hypersonic flight. “A lot of the problems we’re trying to solve from small to big haven’t really been solved before, so overcoming that was … doing a lot of research but also a ton of collaboration and meetings with professor Juliano, using his expertise and kind of working together,” Running said. “One thing that I always like that [Juliano] says when he assigns projects or assignments to us is, ‘I wouldn’t be assigning them to you if I knew how to do them.’ He really does need our help and is willing to work with us and bounce ideas off of each other.”Tags: aerospace engineering, Wind tunnel Faculty and students at the Notre Dame Hypersonic Aerodynamics Lab unveiled the largest quiet Mach 6 hypersonic wind tunnel in the United States on Nov. 30, 2018. Nearly a year later, the lab continues to apply the technology to the future of flying.
Share 50 Views no discussions Tweet LifestyleTravel Airport security scans: What would your doctor do? by: – March 31, 2011 Sharing is caring! Share (CNN) — I was in the security line at an airport a few months ago when I watched a fellow passenger do something I’d never seen done before: He dissed the scan.“I’d like to opt out,” he said, as a security agent went scurrying for a male agent to give this man a full-body pat-down, the requirement for anyone who refuses to go through the full-body scanner.Wow, I thought, this man really must want to avoid the scanner if he’s willing to get groped by a total stranger.The Transportation Security Administration says the so-called backscatter scans, which emit a small amount of radiation, are safe. “Multiple independent studies have confirmed that the technology used to protect passengers when they fly is safe for their health,” says TSA spokesman Nicholas Kimball. “TSA takes many precautions to regularly verify that all machines are operating properly.”Another type of airport scanner uses “millimeter wave” technology, which uses electromagnetic waves and has not raised the same level of public concerns as the backscatter scans.So why all the worry? In my obnoxious journalist way, I pounced on the guy to ask him why he’d done it.“I’m a doctor at M.D. Anderson, and I don’t want radiation if I can avoid it,” he said.I was next in line. I’d just watched a doctor at M.D. Anderson, a top cancer hospital, opt out because he wanted to avoid radiation. Does that mean I should, too? I had a second to make a decision. I decided to opt out, too.The pat-down, I learned, is not such an easy option. First, you have to make a bit of a spectacle of yourself by publicly asking for something different. Secondly, it takes time (not a lot, but enough to be a problem if you’re running late) and thirdly, I ended up being touched in places previously reserved for my husband and my gynecologist.I began to wonder if the doctor was being a little paranoid. Was the radiation so dangerous that it was worth the hassle and embarrassment? To get a little perspective, when I returned home I randomly asked doctors I respect what they do in the security line. It was a completely unscientific sampling, but it yielded this interesting result: All these doctors are smart people with access to the same scientific data, and yet made very different choices.Doctors who say “yes” to the scannersI started, of course, with my colleague Dr. Sanjay Gupta, a neurosurgeon, who told me he hasn’t opted out thus far.Many other doctors feel the same way.“I go through them,” said Dr. Greg Zorman, chief of neurosurgery at Memorial Healthcare System in Florida. “The amount of radiation you get isn’t worth worrying about.”Dr. Drew Pinsky, an internist and host of a new show on HLN that makes its debut on April 4, called the amount of radiation “inconsequential.”The radiation you get from a backscatter imaging machine used at many airports is the same amount of radiation you get from sitting on an airplane for two minutes, according to research released this week by the University of California San Francisco.The researchers calculated for every 100 million passengers who fly seven one-way flights a year, six of them could get cancer as a result of the radiation exposure from the full-body scans.The California researchers made these calculations based on information from the manufacturers. Some researchers question whether the manufacturers’ measurements are valid. David Brenner, director of the Center for Radiological Research at Columbia University, says he thinks the exposure to radiation is actually 10 times more than what the manufacturers claim.Even so, Brenner (who’s a physicist, not a medical doctor) still goes through the scanners at airports because even by his calculations the amount of radiation is still small.Doctors who say “no” to the scannersDr. Otis Brawley, chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society, takes a pat-down instead of going through a scanner when he travels. He says he’s concerned about whether the machines are calibrated and inspected properly.“USA Today did a piece on how badly TSA maintained their X-ray equipment for carryon bags, and this gave me little confidence,” he wrote to me in an e-mail.Brawley’s deputy concurs.“I do whatever I can to avoid the scanner,” Dr. Len Lichtenfeld wrote to me in an e-mail.He says as a frequent flier, he’s concerned about the cumulative effect of the radiation.“This is a total body scan — not a dental or chest X-ray,” he wrote to me. “Total body radiation is not something I find very comforting based on my medical knowledge.”Lichtenfeld says it doesn’t necessarily give him great comfort that the TSA says the scans are safe.“I can still remember getting my feet radiated as a child when I went to the shoe store and they had a machine which could see how my foot fit in the new shoes,” he says. “We were told then that they were safe, and they were not.”(At first I thought Lichtenfeld was making this up, but you can actually see one of these foot scanners at the Museum of Questionable Medical Devices at the Science Museum of Minnesota.)Another doctor who opts for the pat-down is Dr. Dong Kim, Rep. Gabrielle Giffords’ neurosurgeon.“There is really no absolutely safe dose of radiation,” says Kim, chair of the department of neurosurgery at the University of Texas Medical School. “Each exposure is additive, and there is no need to incur any extra radiation when there is an alternative.”This was echoed by several other physicians, including Dr. Andrew Weil.“All radiation exposure adds to the cumulative total you’ve received over your lifetime,” Weil wrote to me in an e-mail. “Cancer risks correlate with that number, so no dose of radiation is too small to matter.”Doctors exposed to radiation at work are particularly sensitive to this issue, as I learned when I got through security that day in the airport and chased after the doctor who’d opted out.I learned his name is Dr. Karl Bilimoria, and he’s a surgical oncology fellow at M.D. Anderson. He says this is a frequent topic of discussion among his colleagues.“If we can avoid a little radiation in exchange for the two extra minutes needed for a pat-down, then we will,” he says.By Elizabeth Cohen, CNN News Share
ECVB traveled to Muncie Central on Saturday. This was our first time participating in this tournament, so we went in knowing the competition would be strong and that we would have to play at a higher level in order to compete. ECVB defeated Muncie Central to open the day with the scores of 29-17 & 25-17. It took us a little bit to find our rhythm in this match, but they never quit. We were down 22-24 at the end of the match and didn’t quit. They fought hard to force extended play and eventually came out on top. Our match last week against Lawrenceburg probably helped in this match because it showed them that they could do it and that they didn’t need to panic. We controlled the second set a lot better and took them out of their comfort zone. ECVB vs Muncie Central 9-28-19We defeated Richmond in the second round of pool play 25-21 & 25-7. We gave up some leads in set one, but Richmond is very scrappy and that can become frustrating, especially for our offense. But they pushed from the service line and then never let up in that area the rest of the match. Molly Gregg opened set 2 with 12-0 serving run with multiple aces in that run. We pulled Richmond out of sync by being aggressive on our side of the court. ECVB vs Richmond 9-28-19We lost to Wapahani in the championship 25-22 & 25-14. We definitely gave them a run for their money in the first set. We dug too big of a whole that it was tough to come out of it, but they never quit and played hard the entire set. The second set was a different story. We let a couple of errors get to us and from that point forward we were pulled out of the game. Wapahani is a very disciplined and fast team and we just didn’t keep up with that in the second set. When you’re facing a team that makes a run for the state title every year, you have to stay in control of everything you can, and we didn’t do that. ECVB vs Wapahani 9-28-19Varsity is now 16-7 on the season. Next up: at Springboro on Thursday.Courtesy of Trojans Coach Cassie Laker.
Authorities in Fort Lauderdale are reporting that they have neutralized a subject who was shooting at people and cars from the fourth story of an apartment complex.The incident was reported Monday night in the area of Northeast 14th Avenue and Sixth street.Officials say they began receiving calls about the suspect who began shooting in the Victoria Park neighborhood.As calls about the incident began to come in, a witness flagged down an officer who was in the area.When authorities arrived, the gunman was still on his balcony.Authorities then opened fire from the ground floor, shooting the gunman in the stomach. The gunman was then taken to Broward Health Medical Center as a trauma patient.No one else was injured during the incident, however, authorities did report, a Hertz delivery van was struck by several bullets.The incident is still under investigation. Authorities say the suspect had no priors on his record.
Mr. Alexander M. Massey, Interim Principal of the Booker Washington Institute (BWI), has outlined what he described as the “existing state of affairs and accomplishments report” of the institute in recent years.In his remarks during a program marking the institute’s 86th Founders Day anniversary on Saturday, June 28, Mr. Massey said BWI’s current enrollment stands at 1139, down from a population of 1361 last school year in spite of “our best efforts to narrow this gap.”“We are of the opinion that the total enrolment is still a little too large because it exceeds our targeted student to teacher ratio of 35/40 to one and therefore impacts our ability to provide a premium learning environment for each of our students,” he asserted.The equal percentages of day and boarding students occurring last school year has changed to 60 percent boarding and 40 percent day students this academic year.The reason for this change, in part, can be attributed to the policy of returning BWI to the tradition of a boarding school where it was mandatory starting last school year for each freshman student to live on campus, Massey explained.Upgrades to the dormitories along with much needed improvements in the quality of the food served in the dining hall may have served to promote the policy to return BWI to an exclusively boarding institution, said Massey.In academic performance, BWI experienced a modest increase in the number of students making the honor roll last school year over the previous year. “We still had about 26 percent of our total enrollment failing one or more subjects,” reported Massey.The slight increase in the number of students making the honor roll last year, Massey said, was perhaps due to his administration establishing remedial classes for the students run by instructors three evenings a week.In addition to the evening classes, BWI has also introduced this year a four days a week “peer-on-peer” tutoring program utilizing a portion of the institute’s two hour lunch period in an attempt to provide additional remedial help and support for the students.The high failing rate continues to be an issue of outmost concern for his administration, Massey emphasized.“We have come to the realization that if we are going to reverse this trend and return BWI to the tradition of a Center of Excellence we are going to accomplish it in several significant ways.”He said BWI must adopt more rigorous standards and require higher expectations from its students, disclosing that his administration has begun to put in place some of the necessary measures in an effort to help elevate standards at BWI.Those measures include the recruitment and attraction of a better quality of students from across the country and the hiring of better qualified academic and trade instructors, Massey said.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)